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Picture of DNA which is Salt and Dust in the Bible

Salt, Dust, Light, and Water in the Bible

Study of Salt, Dust, Water, & Light in Bible

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The Study of Salt, Dust, Water, and Light in the Bible

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Studying Salt, Dust, Water, and Light in the Bible
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Studying Salt, Dust, Water, & Light in Scripture

S T O S S Books

Studying Salt, Dust, Water & Light in Scripture

S T O S S Books

Salt, Dust, Water & Light in Scripture

Salt, Dust, Water & Light in Scripture

What is salt, dust, and stone in the Bible
In Scripture, DNA is both dust and salt
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Is DNA specifically mentioned in the Bible?
Atheists Pg > Atheists Bible Challenge
Salt, dust, and stone equal DNA
Mitochondrial Eve & eye

Is DNA in the Bible?

"We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.)."--Watson, et al.

What is the Meaning of Dust & Salt in Scripture?[1]

Over and over again in Scripture, the embodied soul, i.e., man, is referred to as some sort of dust, stone, or salt. In fact, whenever we encounter salt, dust, clay/mud, and stone (much larger particle(s) of dust) in Scripture, I believe it would be wise, maybe even necessary, to include in our consideration of each passage’s meaning, the knowledge we will gain in this section. In Scripture, God is showing us the Bible is not anti-science. In fact, it actually teaches us science, especially the biological sciences. Once again, we are able to see that Scripture could not have been written by mere men, absent Divine inspiration. Neither Moses nor any of the other writers of Scripture could have imagined, in their wildest dreams, the science of salt and dust discussed below. In Ecclesiastes 12:7, it reads, at our bodily death, the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to God who gave it. This helps to refute the idea that salt and dust in Scripture are purely symbolic. This passage specifically refers to the very essence of rational man. We are, in fact, body (dust/salt) and spiritual soul, and the two are only separated (until the resurrection) at our bodily death.
All rocks and, therefore, stones (which come from rocks) are formed from two or more minerals (minerals are generally defined as inorganic solids that have a crystalline structure).[2] Some minerals are composed of only one element listed in the Periodic Table. Others are mixed with other elements, such as Aluminum, Silicon, Sodium, and Magnesium.[3] Some elemental minerals are classified as metallic, e.g. gold, silver, and copper. Sodium[4] and Potassium[5] are both elemental alkali metals that combine with the Phosphate DNA backbone (the two “handles” of the double helix “ladder”) to make it a salta salt that is also dust/stone. Furthermore, DNA itself has a crystalline structure [6], as do all minerals. In fact, it was X-ray crystallography that showed the “B” form of DNA was in the shape of a double helix.[7]
One might ask, why haven’t the biological sciences made the connection between DNA and the scriptural references to the dust and salt of the earth? The article Why Biologists Don’t Connect DNA to Bible Dust Salt answers that question and provides a more scientific explanation about DNA.
Our DNA is a bonded collection of very, very small stones—dare I say dust—held together by electrically charged ions and surrounded by dynamically structured molecules of water. One microbiologist tells us that DNA by itself, absent any of the other biological systems that make for a living cell, is nothing more than a “rock”.[8] That’s right—dust! Let’s recall the words of God to Adam: “In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return” (Gen. 3:19). Dust/stone is nothing more than pieces of rock that have been separated and gradually worn down to very, very, small mineral crystals, i.e. stones, which are the size of dust.[9] More specific to man in Scripture is the use of the word “clay”.
St. Hildegard of Bingen writes, “Out of clay God so shaped humanity that through this tiny spark of the soul we become flesh and blood out of clay.”[10] Clay is composed of two primary substances: A) dust that is even finer than silt, i.e. 2 microns (aka micrometer; two-thousandths of a millimeter) or less;[11] and, B) water. Considering the size of our DNA (the nuclear volume of an entire sperm cell containing an entire molecule of DNA, is only about 30 microns[12]). Consequently, the use of clay to identify man's body in Scripture is significant. In order for clay to be moldable (the technical term is “plastic”), which is scripturally symbolic of a biologically and spiritually alive human person (e.g., Num. 5:16-17; Job 10:9; Is. 64:6-8; Rom. 9:20-24), it must contain water within its mix. Water plays a critical role in how our dust of DNA functions.[13] Our bodies—including Jesus’ body—are made up entirely of cells which contain within their nucleus, the biological stone/dust/clay of DNA and biological water. Incidentally, how biological water functions within the human body is nothing short of mind-boggling. One scientist described water as the most amazing substance in the universe.

Other Bible Passages Connecting Dust to DNA

Some might hypothesize that dust is purely symbolic of the need for man to be humble. While it is true that Scripture uses our humble origin to symbolize our need to be humble, it does not negate Scripture’s inextricably linking the dust of the earth together with the salt/dust of DNA. In Genesis 2:18-19 we read, “The LORD God said: It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suited to him. So the LORD God formed out of the ground all the wild animals and all the birds of the air [emphasis SML].” Clearly, wild animals and birds of the air are not in need of the virtue of humility. This passage is informing us that all organic life is made from the dust of the earth. St. Hildegard of Bingen was informed by God that “Of all the strengths of Gods creation, Mans is most profound, made in a wondrous way with great glory from the dust of the earth and so entangled with the strengths of the rest of creation that he can never be separated from them [emphasis SML].”[14]
God is not being figurative when we are told that ALL biologically living creatures (man, beasts, birds, etc.) are made of dust (Gen. 2:7, 2:19, and 3:19)! As we shall see later, science confirms this to be true. When we die, we decompose into dust. In Sirach it is written, “The Lord created man out of earth, and turned him back to it again” (Sir. 1:5). We also read in Scripture, “Remember that thou hast made me of clay; and wilt thou turn me to dust again” (Job 10:9)? If one interprets Genesis quite literalistically, one would have to conclude that only Adam could have been made from actual geological dust—dust of the earth (I will suggest an alternative interpretation in my blog here).
For all the rest of us, there are at least two people (our biological mother and father) who can vouch for the fact that we did not receive our dust from the dirt in our parents garden. Im pretty sure God did not wake up Sarahs soon-to-be parents, telling them, come with me to the garden and watch this ... youre gonna love it! Then He proceeds with the words: Hocus Pocus, arise from this dirt, baby Sarah. Quite to the contrary, for all the rest of us (Eve is discussed elsewhere), our body was made through one event, and one event only—the union of a sperm cell (with the exception of Jesus) and an egg cell (with the exception of Eve), both of which contain the dust/salt of DNA.
Everything we are, from the physical body perspective, came from the sperm and egg — and only the sperm and egg. The only material in either of those two cells that could be called dust, is the dust/salt of DNA. If you’re wondering about the cell material (e.g., cell membranes, etc.) in which the DNA resides … nope ... not salt, not dust! The structural material of the cell is composed of lipids embedded with proteins (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_membrane). Therefore, only the DNA can be identified as dust. Recall that Scripture tells us we are made from the dust of the earth (cf. Gen. 2:7, 3:19, 18:27; Tobit 3:6; Job 10:9; Eccl. 3:20; and many others) and we will return to dust. Ergo, Scripture, once again, verifies the fact that our salt of DNA is also dust, i.e., very small stones, but stones, nonetheless.
To my way of thinking, the above argument constitutes an open-and-shut case. I cannot conceive of how Scripture passages equating man with dust can refer to anything else but the salt/dust of DNA.[15] Let’s look at some passages that link inorganic salt/dust/stone with organic salt/dust/stone:
1) Satan tempted Jesus to turn stones into bread. Satan is evil, but he is not stupid. He would not tempt Jesus this way unless he knew Jesus could do it (Lk. 4:3, Mt. 4:3);
2) God turned dust into gnats (Ex. 8:16-17);
3) God tells us he could turn stones into children of Abraham, i.e. members of the Chosen nation (Mt. 3:9, Lk. 3:8), Jews who would be in the image and likeness of God … dust of the earth;
4) The rebuilt Temple (Jesus’ body, per John 2:19-21) is referred to as the ‘cornerstone’ (same material, but a much larger version of dust) of the Temple (1 Pt. 2:6);
5) Peter tells us, Come to him, to that living stone, rejected by men but in Gods sight chosen and precious; and like living stones be yourselves built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ (1 Pt. 2:4-5). Note that we are described as living stones;
6) Multiple linkages made between man and mud/clay (e.g. Is. 64:8; Job 10:9, 33:6; Rom 9:21; Jn 9:11; and many more), and;
7) In Rev. 2:12-17, we read about the church at Pergamum. The people of this church are told, “To him who conquers I will give some of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, with a new name written on the stone which no one knows except him who receives it.” So, what was it that the Spirit wanted this particular church to conquer? Interestingly, none of the other churches were promised a white stone if they conquered their sinfulness. The sin of the church at Pergamum was fornication, both of the flesh and of the spirit. We know this because of the reference to the “teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak.” In order to make God angry with the Israelites, Balaam taught Balak to place stumbling blocks (I am assuming the symbolic stumbling blocks were also stone / dust) before them. So Balak employed some of the most beautiful women in his kingdom to lure the men into unclean fleshly and spiritual acts, i.e. sexual intercourse and idolatry[16] (which is considered as an adulterous relationship against God’s covenant with Israel) The stumbling blocks were the DNA/salt/dust/stone bodies of beautiful and desirous women. This is why the Spirit informs them of the white stone. He is telling them, if the men conquer their “lust of the flesh” (impure stone/dust), then, at the resurrection, their bodies will be raised from the dead, be glorified, and become as pure as snow (as clean as a white stone).[17]
In the Old Testament, there are many passages that contain seemingly contradictory connotations about the meaning of salt. However, when you understand that salt in the Bible is also a concrete reality, those connotations transform into a unified understanding that opens Scripture up for a deeper understanding of the Word of God.
Here are some examples of the bad connotations. In Psalms, we read, He turns rivers into a desert, springs of water into thirsty ground, a fruitful land into a salty waste, because of the wickedness of its inhabitants (Ps. 107:33-34). In Deuteronomy, it is written, “See the afflictions of that land and the sicknesses with which the Lord has made it sickthe whole land brimstone and salt [referencing Lots wife and the Dead/Salt Sea], and a burnt-out waste, unsown, and growing nothing, where no grass can sprout. (Deut. 29:22-23). There are many more, but you get the picture.
Now let’s look at some passages conveying a good connotation. In 2 Kgs. 2:19-22, Elisha purifies the bad water of the city by pouring salt from a new bowl into it. This would seem to be counterintuitive, since salt normally contaminates water. (remember the whole Lots wife thing at the Dead Sea). The new bowl symbolizes Jesus body. The fact that it is a new bowl from which the purifying water is poured signifies that it does not symbolize Jesus mortal body, but his glorified body, the body that has been resurrected from the dead. Scripture reads, I have no pleasure in you, says the Lord of hosts; and I will not accept an offering from your hand. For from the rising of the sun to its setting my name is great among the nations, and in every place incense is offered to my name, and a pure offering. (Mal. 1: 10-11), What is this incense that is a pure offering? In Exodus we read, Make an incense blended as by the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy (Ex. 30:34-35). This sweet incense is made only for God. In fact, he tells Moses that anyone using it for their personal use will be cut off from Gods people. What is being offered? It is salt, pure and holy. This is the same salt with which Elisha purifies the bad water.
It is worth noting that all the bad connotations of salt in Scripture stop with the resurrection of Jesus. This is when the new and final Covenant of Salt starts. This leads us to the concrete meaning of salt in Scripture. The bad connotations are referring to the, as yet non-redeemed, fallen salt of DNA of Adam and his descendants. The good connotations refer to our Saviors salt of DNA ... and ours when we become members of the Mystical Body of Christ through Baptism. Luke writes, And eating together with them, he commanded them, that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but should wait for the promise of the Father (Acts 1:4: Douay-Rheims 1899 American Edition).
Pope Benedict places great significance on the wording that Luke chose when talking about Jesus eating with them. According to Benedict, the word that Luke used is synalizômenos. Benedict tells us this particular wording is very important to Luke; that he must have deliberately chosen to employ it. The literal translation of the phrase in question is eating salt with them. Benedict interprets this interpretation as a reference to the Eucharist (see Jn. 6:26-71, 1 Cor. 11:26-30, and others) which is the body, blood, soul, and Divinity of Jesus.[18]
All the OT Jews had to add salt to all their offerings to God. That which was being offered was already unblemished, so it would symbolize Jesus offering of his body on the cross. Therefore, the added salt represents us. More specifically, our body. We have to join Jesus on the cross (via the Eucharist) as a pure and acceptable offering to our Father (recall Mal. and Ex. above). I could go on and on, but this is already a long post. I spend almost the entire first volume of The Science & Theology of Salt in Scripture making the case that in Scripture, God intended that salt, dust, and stone be interpreted as our dust/salt of DNA. I also begin laying the groundwork for an understanding why.

Biological versus Geological Terminology

When I first realized that salt and dust in Scripture refer to the salt and dust of DNA, I was shocked and puzzled at the same time. I couldnt understand why someone in the scientific community had not already discovered this. Only recently, in a discussion with a biologist, was I able to discover what I believe to be the reason. One might ask, why haven’t the biological sciences made the connection between DNA and the scriptural references to the dust and salt of the earth? The article Why Biologists Don’t Connect DNA to Bible Dust Salt provides more detailed and scientific answers to that question.
In the Bible, there are many passages informing us that man was made from the dust of the earth, and to dust he will return after his death. It is clear from all of these passages that God is teaching us something about mans creation, but he is using the geological sciences (i.e., the dust of the earth) because this is the terminology that people of the first few thousand years would have some degree of meaningful understandingeven if it was only symbolic. They could never have even begun to understand DNA or cell physiology. Through this geological terminology, they would be given a symbolic meaning of a creation event that, as it would be discovered later, is actually a much deeper concrete realitybeyond symbolic. In reality, it is the salt/dust of DNA. With this deeper understanding, a better understanding of how the Sacraments, the Mystical Body of Christ, and grace, affect both the body and the soul. This also leads to a deeper understanding of how Love is expressed in the visible world through the language of the body, as Pope St. John Paul II describes it.
So, since God is employing geological terminology by using the words salt, dust, and stone, lets see how the geological sciences define a stone. According to Mineral Town:
The rocks you see around youthe mountains, canyons & riverbeds, are all made of minerals. A rock is made up of two or more minerals [SML]. Think of a chocolate chip cookie as a rock. The cookie is made of flour, butter, sugar & chocolate. The cookie is like a rock and the flour, butter, sugar & chocolate are like minerals. You need minerals to make rocks, but you don't need rocks to make minerals. All rocks are made of minerals.[19]
Incidentally, this is why gold and silver are never referred to as a rock or stone. Each only contains one elemental mineral, not the two or more necessary to be classified as a stone. Because of this, they use the term, nugget, bar, coin, etc.
Let me explain what I believe God means when He uses “salt” in Scripture. In 1953 James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins published a paper titled “A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid [DNA].” The first sentence states, “We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.).” The sentence is significant. It informs us that DNA is a biological salt and, therefore, also classified as dust.[20]
James D. Watson describes the solids that bind to the DNA Phosphate backbone as inorganic ions, i.e., inorganic solids. He was probably including the Periodic Elements of Sodium (Na+), Phosphate (PO4-3), and Magnesium (Mg+2) as it applies to DNA.[21]
According to the geological sciences, a mineral is defined as possessing:
1. A naturally occurring inorganic solid,
2. A definite chemical composition and,
3. A crystalline structure.
The DNA backbone is composed of a sodium-phosphate ionic compound, which fulfills geology’s definition of a mineral, i.e., two Earth elements electrostatically bonded together. Additionally—and of vital importance—a second mineral exists in the DNA molecule. It is present in the nucleoside Adenine (Adenine Tri-Phosphate—ATP) base, which is designated by the letter “A”. ATP is a part of the rungs of the ladder of the double helix. McFarland tells us, “Magnesium (Mg+2) fits perfectly between the Oxygens on two adjacent Phosphates in ATP.”[22]
Therefore, combining two geological minerals (i.e., Sodium Phosphate and Magnesium Phosphate) bonded to the same DNA molecule means that DNA can be geologically defined as dust/salt.
Perepelytsya and Volkov describe DNA as a salt of alkali.[23] Russian scientist Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetskii in his book, Unraveling DNA: The Most Important Molecule of Life, tells us DNA, despite being called an acid, is also salt. He further states that calling it acid is an error of the highest magnitude. It could be compared to the error by referring to ordinary table salt as hydrochloric acid.[24]
Under what circumstances does biological dust also qualify as a biological salt? It occurs when an ion of alkali metal, such as sodium, bonds with the DNA Phosphate backbone (the two sides of the double helix spiral ladder). The two sides are composed of a phosphate group, which is the acid in DNA, bonded with 5-carbon sugar).[25] Thus, DNA is a salt which is also classified as dust.
In James Watsons personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA, we discover the seeds of future breakthroughs in the role of biological water in the structure and function of DNA and the genes within the molecule of DNA. Watson writes:
[Rosalind Franklin aka Rosy] had had evidence for a new three-dimensional form of DNA. [The structuring] occurred when the DNA molecules were surrounded by a large amount of water [all emphasis SML]. … Since the middle of the summer Rosy had had evidence for a new three-dimensional form of DNA. It occurred when the DNA molecules were surrounded by a large amount of water.[26]
“Tight shells of water molecules,” as Rosy described it.[27] Why is this significant? Science itself is beginning to realize how deep and intertwined are the biological sciences that comprise what Pope St. John Paul II termed Language of the Body. Jesus took on our humanityour body and spiritual soul compositeto be the instrument through which man would be Redeemed! Through which all grace would be communicated/gifted to us.

A Short Preview of Structured Bio-living Water

Approximately seventy years after this conversation took place, the science of cellular biology has advanced to the degree that we are able to begin to see water as really alive and moving. Nobel Laureate Albert Szent-Gyorgyi characterizes life as “water dancing [SML] to the tune of macromolecules.”[28] Another researcher characterizes this watery dance, as it was referred to by Szent-Gyorgyi, as a sort of quantum “jazz” which is always being improvised in response to its environment. It is also coherent beyond our wildest imaginings. Our body is a liquid crystalline (liquid stone) organism that is, in fact, quantum coherent.[29]
Dr. Gerald Pollack, University of Washington professor of bioengineering, has developed a new theory of water that has been called revolutionary. He has discovered a fourth phase of water consisting of exclusion zones that are bounded, uniquely structured via the natural incorporation of hydronium ions (H3O+). According to Pollack, these hydration shells coat every solid cellular surface in the body. Outside the tight confines of the cell, structured water can project from a nucleating surface by distances up to a full meter. However, it takes millions of layers of these molecules to create that depth of layering. Within the cell, the layering can reach up to one-hundred layers.[30]
After the release of Gerald H. Pollack’s book The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor in 2013, several studies supporting the existence of EZs (aka structured/vicinal water) have been conducted. The journal Entropy published a special edition containing nine of those peer-reviewed studies. Those studies can be accessed at https://www.mdpi.com/journal/entropy/special_issues/EZ-water. In addition to the nine articles below, Daniel Elton et al. have cited eleven peer-reviewed articles (cited in Endnotes 1-11 of that paper) that support the existence of EZs.[30A]
The discovery of structured water is revolutionizing our understanding of how the body functions. One thing it has opened our eyes to is the profound interaction between bio-living water and photons of light. It seems that when God teaches us about Living Water and the light of Truth, he wasn’t only referring to the spiritual. In fact, because of this new understanding, we now can suggest how the Holy Spirit uses bio-living water to stop the decaying process that should occur in the deceased saints who are miraculously kept fully or partially incorrupt. It also suggests the possibility of the instrumentality of water in cleansing the physical bodies of those who are receiving the Sacrament of Baptism.
The Hebrew word for dust in Genesis is aphar, which translates as dust (as powdered or gray); hence, clay, earth, mud [Strongs 6083]. Even Richard Dawkins has admitted that Genesis may have, indeed, accurately described how man was made. Kudos to him for being intellectually honest enough to do so. According to an article by Paul Baldwin:
Clay is made up of tiny crystals which when fed with water are capable of growing, splitting off and giving rise to identical (or near-identical crystals) ... Mr. Cairns-Smith proposed biological molecules like DNA began to associate with these complex crystals and eventually a genetic takeover took place ... Astonishingly his theory was first proposed in 1966 but further studies in 2007 and 2013 backed the principles … Most recently Biological Engineers from Cornell Universitys department for Nanoscale Science in New York state agreed clay might have been the birthplace of life on Earth.[31]
DNA is salt. DNA is dust. DNA is crystalline.
A list of STOSS Books blogs and articles, together descriptions and links can be found here.
Updated 07/12/2024


[1] The majority of this section is taken from chapter 1 and sub-chapter 1(a) of Stephen Michael Leininger’s book, The Science & Theology of Salt in Scripture, Vol. I.
[2]. Dr. Michael Pidwirny. “Composition of Rocks”. Fundamentals of Physical Geography, (Kelowna, Canada: Okanagan University College, 1996, 2nd Edition 2006), Chapter 10 (d), http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10d.html, (accessed 10/10/2011).
[3]. Ibid.
[4]. Yinon Bentor, “Periodic Table: Sodium”, in Chemical Element.com, http://www.chemicalelements.com/elements/na.html (accessed 10/11/2011).
[5]. Ibid.
[6]. James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA (New York, NY: Touchstone, 2001), 165-166; 183; 193; and 113-114.
[7]. Ibid., 68-69, 167-168.
[8]. University of Georgia, “Light Shed on Ancient Origin of Life,” Science Daily, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/03/130307110644.htm: Science Daily LLC, March 6, 2013 (accessed 03/08/2013).
[9]. MineralTown, “Soil, Sand and Dirt,” http://www.mineraltown.com/infocoleccionar/How_rocks_minerals_are_formed.htm#Crystals, (accessed 10/11/2011)
[10]. Hildegard of Bingen. Hildegard of Bingen’s Book of Divine Works: With Letters and Songs. Translated by Robert Cunningham, Jerry Dybdal, and Ron Miller. Edited by Matthew Fox. (Santa Fe, NM: Inner Traditions International/Bear & Company, 1987). Used with permission. Kindle Locations 2430 - 2431.
[11]. Clay,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia (Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay, (accessed 10/17/2012).
[12]. Ron Milo, Rob Phillips, “How Big Is A Human Cell,” Cell Biology By The Numbers, http://book.bionumbers.org/how-big-is-a-human-cell/, (accessed 08/23/2016).
[13]. As revealed in detail in The Science & Theology of Salt in Scripture, Vol. II.
[14]. St. Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, (Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 1990), 98.
[15]. Not resting on this evidence alone, the majority of Volume I of STOSS is devoted to showing that the literalistic interpretation of salt, dust, and stone in Scripture, is also the literal interpretation. An example of a literalistic interpretation is this: If the Bible talks about Jesus being the door, we would interpret that as Jesus being an actual wooden (or some other material) door. The literal interpretation is that which the author actually meant. Using this method, Jesus’ describing himself as the door is really him telling us that it is only through him that we can go to the Father. In some cases in Scripture, the literalistic interpretation can also be the literal interpretation. An example of this is when Jesus describes himself as real food and real drink (John 6:55).
[16]. Ken Ham, “Millions of Years and the ‘Doctrine of Balaam,’” Answers in Genesis, https://answersingenesis.org/the-word-of-god/millions-of-years-and-the-doctrine-of-balaam/: June 1, 1997 (accessed 05/07/2017).
[17]. cf. Peter Abelard (circa 1100 AD), “The Story of My Misfortunes,” (Third Millennium Media L.L.C., The Faith Database L.L.C., 2008).
[18]. Pope Benedict XVI, “Jesus of Nazareth Part Two, Holy Week: From the Entrance Into Jerusalem To The Resurrection” (Kindle Locations 3436 - 3437). Ignatius Press.
[19]. Mineral Town.com, “The Rock Cycle,” Mineral Town.com, https://www.mineraltown.com/infocoleccionar/how_rocks_minerals_are_formed.htm#Rocks, (accessed 10/10/2011).
[20]. Watson, J., Crick, F., Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. Nature 171, 737–738 (1953). https://doi.org/10.1038/171737a0.
[21]. James D. Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA (New York, NY: Touchstone, 2001), 80, 85.
[22]. Ben McFarland, A World From Dust: How the Periodic Table Shaped Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 2016), Kindle Edition, 2, 13.
[23]. S. M. Perepelytsya and S. N. Volkov, “Counterion vibrations in the DNA low-frequency spectra,” The European Physical Journal E-Soft Matter (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg) 24, 3 (November, 2007).
[24]. Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetskii, Unraveling DNA: The Most Important Molecule of Life trans. Lev Liapin, Revised ed., (Reading, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1997), 60.
[25]. Biologydictionary.net Editors, “Phosphate Group,” Biology Dictionary. Biologydictionary.net, November 04, 2016. https://biologydictionary.net/phosphate-group/., accessed 8/8/2019.
[26]. Watson, James D., The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, Scribner. Kindle Edition, (p. 138).
[27]. Watson, James D., The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, p. 85.
[28]. Gerald H. Pollack; Ivan L. Cameron; Denys N. Wheatley, Water and the Cell (The Netherlands: Springer, 2006), viii.
[29]. Mae-Wan Ho, Zhou Yu-Ming, Julian Haffegee et al., “The Liquid Cyrstalline Organism and Biological Water,” Water and the Cell, eds. Gerald H. Pollack, Ivan L. Cameron, Denys N. Wheatly (The Netherlands: Springer, 2006), 220-221.
[30]. Gerald Pollack, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor, (Seattle, WA: Ebner and Sons, 2013), Kindle Edition, pp. 15, 25, 40, 67 ; W. Drost-Hanson, “Vicinal Hydration of Biopolymers: Cell Biological Consequences,” eds. Gerald H. Pollack, Ivan L. Cameron, and Denys N. Wheatley, Water and the Cell (The Netherlands: Springer, 2006), 210-211.
[30A]. Daniel C. Elton, Peter D. Spencer, James D. Riches, Elizabeth D. Williams, “Exclusion Zone Phenomena in Water-A Critical Review of Experimental Findings and Theories,” Int J Mol Sci. 21, no.14 (2020 Jul 17):5041, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145041. PMID: 32708867; PMCID: PMC7404113.
[31] Paul Baldwin, “REVEALED: How life on earth began - and the answer is even crazier than you thought,” Express, https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/752936/Humans-evolved-from-MUD-says-Richard-Dawkins-bible-was-right-evolution-bible, August 31, 2017.
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