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Was Creation of Eve From Adam's Rib Accurate

Atheists Page > Atheists Bible Challenge
The following is the biblical account of Eve's creation from Adam's rib. After reading it, and also the background information that follows it, you will be asked to take the atheist's challenge concerning those verses.

Genesis 2:20-24 (RSVCE)

Verse 20 -- The man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for the man there was not found a helper fit for him.

Verse 21 -- So the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and while he slept took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh;

Verse 22 -- and the rib which the LORD God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man.

Verse 23 -- Then the man said, "This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man."

Verse 24 -- Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh.
Renaissance Fresco (1365) by Bartolo di Fredi depicting the Creation of Eve

Do You Believe the Bible Was Written by Man Without Help From a Higher Intelligence?

Do you believe the Bible was written solely by man alone? Do you believe these human authors were not inwardly inspired by a higher intelligence … maybe even a Divine Intelligence??? Let’s examine the mysteries of science that we believe God inspired Moses to reveal in the biblical account of Eve’s creation. Incidentally, there are at least thirty-four such mysteries in the Bible that have been uncovered by author, Stephen Michael Leininger. So the following example is, by no means, an isolated occurrence.

The Science of Eve’s Creation

The following scientific discoveries will help to understand how God accomplished his goal, as described by Moses, which was to create a “helpmate” (Eve) from the human material of Adam’s body.

1. While all bones can repair themselves, ribs are the only bones that can regenerate themselves.[1] God designed man perfectly. So it would follow that if he took a rib from Adam's perfectly designed body, he would desire to put it back (via regeneration);
2. Ribs are one of many bones that continue to make red marrow, which also means the rib continues to make blood cells into adulthood (Adam, incidentally, was an adult). Consider this: in Scripture it says that our life is in the blood (Gen. 9:4; Lev 17:11-14; Deut. 12:23);
3. The rib is one of the most prolific producers of stem cells, which would be absolutely necessary if God's intention was to make, from Adam's body, a fully developed female body (remember, Adam declared Eve to be bone of his bones and flesh of his flesh). Therefore, God also knew about, and reveals to us in an applied sciences way, the science of stem cells.[2] Stem cells are cells that are capable of differentiating, i.e. becoming other types of cells. For example, a stem cell can become (turn into) a brain cell, a nerve cell, a heart cell, and so on.
4. The rib is rich in unipotent, multipotent, and pluripotent stem cells.[3] Of the three, only the pluripotent cells are capable of differentiating into every cell type necessary to make a complete human body.[4] In the Bible verses displayed above, Moses reveals, not only the science behind stem cells, but also the science behind the various types of stem cells.

There is only one type of stem cell missing from Adam's rib. As a consequence of this fact, it would seem that Eve was made as an adult, probably of Adam's age. Why? There are no totipotent stem cells located within the adult rib.[5] Without totipotent stem cells, a placenta could not be grown.[6] Only embryonic stem cells, very quickly after fertilization, are considered totipotent.[7] The lack of totipotent and/or embryonic stem cells in Adam's rib would support this hypothesis. Additionally, the book of Genesis lacks any wording which would indicate there was an embryonic Eve. Consequently, her corporeal personality could not be a result of "nurture" by any other human being. In a soon to be published blogpost, we will provide the biblical evidence to support the literal interpretation of Eve’s creation.
         In the Genesis creation account, Moses revealed to us (with or without his comprehension of said fact) the science behind surgery and adult stem cell therapy (v. 21). Callea et. al., marveled at the analogy between sleep and anesthesia (as would be necessary for bone marrow transplant). According to Drs. Francesco and Michele Callea, "The recent discovery (or rediscovery) of stem cells in bone marrow and their application in regenerative medicine would seem to support the hypothesis that the development of science could be predicted from the story of Adam's rib. Surprisingly, the progress of science, in turn, may lead us to look again into the narrative of our evolutionary ancestry." It would seem, at least in part, they concur with the very claim we have made in the past, which is this: many of the scientific discoveries, especially concerning man, occurring today have been hidden in Scripture for thousands of years … beginning with the Genesis account of Adam and Eve.[8] Furthermore, God is not anti-science. Rather, He is the Scientist-in-Chief.
         This leads us to an important question. Of all the scientifically suitable bones in the bone system, why did Moses focus on, and select, the rib? If your reply is something along the lines of its close proximity to the heart, then you are begging the question. How could Moses have known that the heart, in particular, was associated with emotions and feelings of love, desire for beauty (real or perceived), or hate? The first mention of the heart in Scripture was in chapter six of Genesis. It was used in the very context of emotions and feelings of love, desire, or hate. Over three thousand years ago, Moses could not have known enough to make that association, unless he was inspired by a higher intelligence … an intelligence that also fully “Loves” (Gen. 6:6). Let’s examine the importance of the heart to Eve’s creation.
In "Light" of Adam's Heart and Eve's Creation

Returning to Genesis, God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam. According to JP II’s thoughts, the word “sleep” in this passage, could very well have been a state of ecstasy.[9] The Hebrew word for Adam’s sleep is tardemah and the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scripture) translates the word into ekstasis (ecstasy).[10] Theologian Francois-Xavier Durrwell tells us that the Holy Spirit is the ecstasy of the Father and the Son.[11] This is very significant. The Holy Spirit is the ecstasy of God, and the same Spirit dwells in the heart. Based on a vision received from God, St. Hildegard of Bingen (declared a Doctor of the Church) writes about the heart, “The [biological] heart is the life and structure of our entire organism. It contains the whole body. Within it our thoughts are arranged and our will is brought to maturity.”[12] The understanding and significance of this quote will become much clearer as we discuss the science of the heart. First, we will discuss the properties of light (electro-magnetic radiation). Then we will talk about the heart itself.
         Wherever there is electrical current, there are, as a direct result of said electrical current, generated photons of light (EMR). The heart is the most powerful generator of electromagnetic energy in the human body.[13][14] … This energy envelops every cell in the human body. Furthermore, the generated magnetic field extends outward several feet or more in all directions from the body.[15][16] The electromagnetic field produced by the heart is 5,000 times stronger than the field generated by the brain. Using a magnetometer, the magnetic field of the heart can be detected at approximately three feet away. In contrast, the brain’s magnetic field can only be detected up to about three inches away.[17][18]
         If you wish to view a video of the generation of this electrical current, go to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7Q9BrNfIpQ. What is really amazing is that electromagnetic fields are an important carrier of information.[19][20][21]. What information is carried by light? Light carries information critical to the self-organizing, or lack thereof, of living molecular systems which are trying to pull themselves up from disorder.[22] The electromagnetic field the heart generates can be coherent (ordered and consistent) or incoherent (disordered and erratic).[23] John Paul II believed biological coherence/harmony was a sure sign of purity of the human heart.[24] According to Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp, coherency means that an event occurring in one part of the organism immediately becomes an event for the entire organism. This is due to the specific communicative properties of biologically generated light.[25]
         Feelings of love, care, and appreciation have been shown to generate a coherent field. Feelings of anger, frustration, and stress, on the other hand, generate an incoherent field. Research seems to indicate, whichever of these two types of field is generated by the heart, it will have a physiologically impact on the entire body.[26] Pope St. John Paul II tells us: “The body speaks not merely with the whole external expression of masculinity and femininity, but also with the internal structures of the organism, of the somatic [the entire body and its aggregate parts--SML] and psychosomatic [relating to the mind/mental--SML] reaction.”[27]
         Here’s another insight into the Genesis account of Eve’s creation. In verse 21, Moses tells us God, in effect, opened up Adam’s flesh (as in, made an incision), took the rib, and then closed it up with flesh (Gen. 2:21). Remember, God is light unapproachable. He created material light to help us, somewhat, comprehend His Divine Light. Do you believe God used a physical scalpel to open Adam up? What is it doctors currently use to make an incision? It is highly structured/coherent light, called a laser. What about closing the incision up with flesh. “Contrary to old and traditionally held beliefs, research is beginning to dispel the idea that hormones (proteins expressed by genes in our DNA) are the primary cause for the triggering of cell division (mitosis) in growing embryos.[28][29] Research now suggests it is signaling coming from light in the UV spectrum originating from within the cell itself, termed ‘mitogenic radiation’ (MGR).”[30][31]
         Here is one of the most important pieces of information relative to Eve’s creation in the image and likeness of Divine Charity. As we said previously, light is the carrier of information that organizes/builds biological life and affects how our DNA functions.[32][33] Using a REAC device (Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyor), Drs. Ventura and Gimzewski have been able to capture the magnetic and electromagnetic fields (fields of light) generated by a collection of the cells of the entire body. They have found that these electromagnetic fields (such as the electromagnetic field generated by the beating heart) were able to cause non-differentiated stem cells to become differentiated cell types, such as heart muscle cells, nerve cells, skin cells, etc.[34] Their research does not stop there. The internal matrix of the cell is permeated by a sort of scaffolding that is made up of fibers. These fibers are continuously vibrating at specific frequencies. These frequencies change in response to environmental factors. Ventura and Gimzewski have been investigating whether or not the vibrations recorded from a beating heart affects the differentiation of stem cells exposed to that energy of sound (recall Adam’s rib). Initial results are indicating their hypothesis is correct.[35]
         I'm not going to go into any details in this article, but there are at least three examples that reinforce our assertion that the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the human heart affects both the spiritual and biological heart ... the heart of flesh (Ez. 36:25-27 DRA) ... as well as those in close proximity to it. In the case of the biological heart, these changes are marked and measurable. The examples are St. Philip Neri, St. Gemma Galgani, and St. John (who rested his head on the breast / heart of Jesus at the Last Supper.)

The Science of the Heart

There is a reason that Scripture refers to the heart (830 times) much more than the mind (273 times). It used to be believed that the brain (mentioned zero times in Scripture) almost completely controlled the heart’s actions. We now know that is not correct.
         The vagus nerve connects the brain to the heart (it extends to several other parts of the body, as well).[36] Of the approximately 200,000 fibers in the mid-cervical section of the right and left vagus nerve,[37] approximately ninety percent (180,000) are afferent (ascending the body), i.e. sending information to the brain; approximately ten percent (20,000) are efferent (descending the body), i.e. receiving information from the brain. No other part of the body has that high a ratio of afferent to efferent nerve fibers.[38][39]
         Here is another indication how the difference in the heart of a woman differs from that of a man. The coherence/order of the electrical signals (also light) traveling from the heart to the brain would vary according to the coherence/order of the electromagnetic field generated by the heart. Another destination of the vagus nerve is the voice box (the larynx).[40] It would be logically consistent to believe the ‘quality’ of the signaling would also affect the voice. Possible evidence of said difference is this: a man processes a female’s voice in the area of the brain that processes music. The female voice is much more melodic and complex than the male voice.[41] As a consequence, and by comparison, men register another man’s voice in the region of the brain that processes visual information.[42]
         It was only recently discovered, the heart produces and releases hormones. In fact, as a result of these discoveries, the heart was reclassified as an endocrine, aka hormonal, gland in 1983.[43] It produces hormones that, up until recently, were only thought to be produced by the brain and the ganglia. Among others, it produces the following hormones: norepinephrine (a stress hormone); dopamine (a “reward” hormone that is associated with several addictions); epinephrine,[44] and; oxytocin. The latter is the hormone involved with creating enduring pair bonding, biological “love”, childbirth, complex sexual/maternal behaviors, and lactation, just to name a few.[45] It has also been discovered that the levels of oxytocin produced by the heart are about the same as is produced in the brain.[46] Now we begin to see why the heart is associated with the ecstasy of love and the painful heartbreak that occurs when our love is not reciprocated. We can begin to see more clearly why the biological heart is the part of the “mouth” (in Scripture, the mouth symbolizes that which sends out the overflow of the inner heart, i.e. the material body) through which is expressed either “true” love (when the Spirit dwells in the inner heart) or biological love (when the flesh/chemicals are responding to sensual input that leads to hormonal desire).[47]
         The heart communicates with the entire body through four means. They are: 1) neurologically (nervous system); 2) biochemically (hormones); 3) energetically (electromagnetic energy); and, 4) biophysically (pulse waves).[48] Researchers have made some very interesting discoveries concerning the physical heart. Coupling their research with the results of research conducted by Drs. J. Andrew Armour and Jeffrey Ardell,[49] we learn that the heart possesses its own complex “brain”(so to speak), complete with a network of neurons, proteins, neurotransmitters, and other components necessary for it to function as such. This, sort of, ‘heart brain’ is self-organizing and processes information independently of the cranial brain. Detecting the presence of hormones and other neurochemicals in the circulating bloodstream, the heart’s “brain” transmits this information to the cranial brain causing appropriate functional changes to its activities.[50][51]
         Let’s tie this all together. The woman was taken out of man … more precisely, the stem cells of man. These stem cells were bathed in electromagnetic radiation generated by a heart that was in ecstasy due to the special indwelling of the Holy Spirit, who is Divine Light and Divine Charity. Remember, this was before the fall of man. Consequently, Adam was already in a state of perfect goodness and coherence/order,[52] even before his ecstasy. Remember also, research indicates that light directs what stem cells become, how they function, and their functional coherence. While I don’t know the particulars (I doubt anybody can), I have no doubt that being exposed, directly or indirectly, to the Light of the Holy Spirit would result in the woman’s creation as an imitation of the appropriations of the Holy Spirit. If it is often the heart that is informing the brain how to act, than it is logical to conclude that a woman created from stem cells radically exposed to a beating heart would be built to think and act very much differently than a man, especially in matters of the heart. In the event of Adam’s creation, there was no other human heart to exert the very special influence that Eve experienced.
The Pre-Challenge Background
Whether or not this account is inspired by God makes no difference to the question I will be asking you to answer. In fact, for the sake of this discussion, we’ll assume that it is simply a fable written by an ordinary man. Let me provide a little bit of historical context. The human author of the first five books of the Bible is most likely Moses. He wrote these books circa 1600 BC to 1400 BC (about 3,600 years ago). Medical treatments in those days consisted largely of the application of incense, herbal concoctions, remedies containing some amount of animal or human dung, and bandaging. As far as anatomy, they would have had an elementary, sense-based, understanding of body parts, but very little beyond that. All that we now know about the biological sciences would be completely unknown to people back then.
The Question:
How could Moses have known the scientifically correct wording (the ONLY scientifically correct wording) to accurately describe what it would take for God to accomplish (in Moses’ “fable”) the creation of a fully formed female from the body of the male, Adam?
The Challenge:
Provide an answer to the above question. All that precedes the challenge employs nothing but verifiable scientific facts. The words of Moses have been accurately conveyed for millennia (even if it was only 200 years ago, the question and challenge would still be valid). The Dead Sea Scrolls, which contain an intact version of the first chapter of Genesis, date back to 100 – to 1 BCE (see here). Consequently, supposition and conjecture will not be accepted as a plausible answer to the question. Saying this Genesis account is nothing more than a fable simply begs the question. Incidentally, there are thirty-four such mysteries of advanced cutting-edge science that God has hidden in Scripture. They are included in the two-volume book, “The Science & Theology of Salt in Scripture” (which atheists seem to be afraid to read). It is our opinion that it would be extremely difficult for someone to examine all 34 mysteries and come away maintaining a plausible belief that some higher intelligence didn’t inspire the human authors.
If you accept the challenge, you can post your answers on our STOSS Books Facebook page.
[1]. Dr. Georgia Purdom, "The Amazing Regenerating Rib," Answers in Genesis, https://answersingenesis.org/human-body/the-amazing-regenerating-rib/; February 4, 2009 (accessed 04/15/2016)
[2]. Callea, F. and Callea, M. (2011), "Adam's rib and the origin of stem cells." Am. J. Hematol., 86: 529. doi: 10.1002/ajh.22005
[3]. Ibid.
Cited by authors: Alison MR, Islam S. "Attributes of adult stem cells." J Pathol 2009; 217:144-160
[4]. Ibid.
[5]. Ibid.
[6]. New York State Dept. of Health, "What is the difference between totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent," NYSTEM, http://stemcell.ny.gov/faqs/what-difference-between-totipotent-pluripotent-and-multipotent; (accessed 04-17-2016)

[7]. Ibid.

[8]. Callea et. al., "Adam's rib and the origin of stem cells"

[9]. John Paul II, in his general audience of Nov. 7, 1979, "Return to the Subject of Human Love in the Divine Plan," Theology of the Body (Third Millennium Media L.L.C., The Faith Database L.L.C., 2008), note #3

[10]. Ibid., notes #2-3

[11]. Francois-Xavier Durrwell, Holy Spirit of God (original English translation published by Geoffrey Chapman, a division of Cassell, Ltd., 1986; reprint published by Servant Books, Cinncinati, OH, 2006)18-19

[12]. Robert Cunningham, Rev. Jerry Dybdal, and Ron Miller trans, Hildegard of Bingen's Book of Divine Works: With Letters and Songs, ed. Matthew Fox (Santa Fe, New Mexico: Inner Traditions Bear & Company. Kindle Edition, June 1, 1987), Kindle Locations 2380-2381

[13]. Rollin McCraty, Ph.D., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, HeartMath Institute, (Boulder Creek, CA: Institute of HeartMath, 2015), 36

[14]. Katharine O. Burleson, Gary E. Schwartz. “Cardiac torsion and electromagnetic fields: The cardiac bioinformation hypothesis,” Medical Hypothesis, 2005, Vol. 64, 1109-1116; DOI:10.1016/j. mehy.2004.12.023

[15]. McCraty et al., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 36

[16]. Burleson et al., “Cardiac torsion and electromagnetic fields: The cardiac bioinformation hypothesis.”

[17]. McCraty et al., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 36

[18]. Stephen Michael Leininger, The Science & Theology of Salt* in Scripture: *Light, Water, Dust, and Stone too, Volume II, STOSS Books (Raceland, Louisiana: 2017). Won’t be published until Dec 2017.

[19]. McCraty, Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 36-37.
Cited by author: Pribram, K.H. and F.T. Melges, “Psychophysiological basis of emotion,” in Handbook of Clinical Neurology, J. Vinken and G.W. Bruyn, Editors. 1969, North-Holland Publishing Company: Amsterdam. p. 316-341

[20]. Werner R. Loewenstein, The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and the Foundations of Life, (Kindle Location 548). Kindle Edition.

[21] University of Western Australia. "Could your brain be reprogrammed to work better?." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140806025318.htm (accessed October 5, 2017)

[22]. Werner R. Loewenstein, The Touchstone of Life: Molecular Information, Cell Communication, and the Foundations of Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 10, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=62414253.

[23]. Burleson et al., “Cardiac torsion and electromagnetic fields: The cardiac bioinformation hypothesis.”

[24]. Christopher West, Theology of the Body Explained (Boston, MA: Pauline Books and Media, 2003), 218

[25]. L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov. “From Mitogenetic Rays to Biophotons.” Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology. ed. L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov, V.S. Martynyuk. (Kindle Locations 270-274). Kindle Edition

[26]. Glen Rein and Rollin McCraty, "ECG Spectra: The measurement of coherent and incoherent frequencies and their relationship to mental and emotional states," Proc. 3rd Annual Conf. of the International Soc. Study Subtle Energies & Energy Medicine (Monterey, CA, 1993)

[27]. John Paul II, in his general audience of Sept. 5, 1984, "Responsible Parenthood Linked to Moral Maturity," Theology of the Body (Third Millennium Media L.L.C., The Faith Database L.L.C., 2008), n. 1

[28]. L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov. “From Mitogenetic Rays to Biophotons.” Biophotonics and Coherent Systems in Biology. ed. L.V. Beloussov, V.L. Voeikov, V.S. Martynyuk. (Kindle Locations 92-94). Kindle Edition.

[29]. Robert O. Becker and Gary Selden, The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, (New York, NY: Harper, 1985). The entire book is devoted to showing the truth of the role of light in functioning, growth, and healing of the body.

[30]. Ibid., 105-107

[31]. Leininger, The Science & Theology of Salt* in Scripture: *Light, Water, Dust, and Stone too, Volume II

[32] Michigan State University. "Electromagnetic Fields Affect Human Cells." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/10/001016073704.htm (accessed October 5, 2017)

[33] Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland. "Radiation From Mobile Phones Changes Protein Expression In Living People, Study Suggests." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080224100008.htm (accessed October 5, 2017)
Journal Source: Myoung Soo Kwon, Victor Vorobyev, Sami Kännälä, Matti Laine, Juha O Rinne, Tommi Toivonen, Jarkko Johansson, Mika Teräs, Harri Lindholm, Tommi Alanko, Heikki Hämäläinen. "GSM mobile phone radiation suppresses brain glucose metabolism." Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 2011; DOI: 10.1038/jcbfm.2011.128

[34]. Ventura, "DNA and Cell Reprogramming via Epigenetic Information Delivered by Magnetic Fields, Sound Vibration and Coherent Water," Webinar transcript

[35]. Ibid.

[36]. McCraty, Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 5
Cited by McCraty: Cameron, O.G., Visceral Sensory Neuroscience: Interception, (New York: Oxford University Press: 2002)

[37]. Hoffman, H. H. and Schnitzlein, H. N. (1961), “The numbers of nerve fibers in the vagus nerve of man.” Anat. Rec., 139:429–435. doi: 10.1002/ar.1091390312

[38]. McCraty, Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 5
Cited by McCraty: Cameron, O.G., Visceral Sensory Neuroscience: Interception, (New York: Oxford University Press: 2002)
[39]. Leininger, The Science & Theology of Salt* in Scripture: *Light, Water, Dust, and Stone too, Volume II

[40]. Steven Wolf, Ph.D., “Pharynx and Larynx,” Anatomy Manual, (Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 1997), http://www.emory.edu/ANATOMY/AnatomyManual/pharynx.html, (accessed 4/24/2012)

[41]. Men Hear Women's Melodies. "Male and Female Voices Activate Distinct Regions in the Male Brain." Dilraj S. Sokhi et al. in NeuroImage, Vol. 27, No. 3, pages 572–578; September 2005; see also, The University of Sheffield, “Male and female voices affect brain differently,” The University of Sheffield, https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/news/nr/422-1.174743, July 12, 2005

[42]. Ibid.
Cited by author: Cantin, M. and J. Genest, “The heart as an endocrine gland.” Pharmacol Res Commun, 1988. 20 Suppl 3: p. 1-22

[43]. McCraty, Ph.D., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 7

[44] Ibid.
Cited by McCraty: Huang, M., et al., “Identification of novel catecholamine containing cells not associated with sympathetic neurons in cardiac muscle.” Circulation, 1995. 92 (8(Suppl)): p. 1-59

[45]. McCraty, Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 7
Cited by McCraty:  Gutkowska, J., et al., “Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone.” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 2000. 33: p. 625-633

[46]. Ibid.

[47]. Leininger, The Science & Theology of Salt* in Scripture: *Light, Water, Dust, and Stone too, Volume II

[48]. McCraty, Ph.D., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, p. 3

[49]. McCraty, Ph.D., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, p. 5
Cited by McCraty: Armour, J.A., “Peripheral autonomic neuronal interactions in cardiac regulation,” Neurocardiology, J.A. Armour and J.L. Ardell, Editors. 1994, Oxford University Press: New York. p. 219-244
[50]. McCraty, Ph.D., Science of the Heart, Vol. 2, 4-5
Cited by McCraty: Armour, J.A., Anatomy and function of the intrathoracic neurons regulating the mammalian heart,in Reflex Control of the Circulation, I.H. Zucker and J.P. Gilmore, Editors. 1991, CRC Press: Boca Raton. p. 1-37; and also, Armour, J.A., “Potential clinical relevance of the ‘little brain’ on the mammalian heart." Exp Physiol, 2008. 93(2): p. 165-76
[51].Leininger, The Science & Theology of Salt* in Scripture: *Light, Water, Dust, and Stone too, Volume II

[52] If our fallen state is described as “disordered, then are pre-fallen state would necessarily be described as ordered. Scripture tells us, “But thou hast arranged all things by measure and number and weight” (Wisdom 11:20)
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